Table of Contents

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List of Contributors

Overview of the Handbook (Markus Knauff & Wolfgang Spohn)

Psychological and Philosophical Frameworks of Rationality-
A Systematic Introduction (Markus Knauff & Wolfgang Spohn)

1. Why Study Rationality?
2. Contours of the Concept of Rationality
3. Theoretical and Practical Rationality
4. Normative and Descriptive Theories of Rationality
5. Individual and Social Rationality
6. Rationality in a Process-Oriented and an Output-Oriented Perspective
7. Preconditions of Rationality
8. Frontiers of Rationality
9. Conclusion and Open Issues



Section 1: Origins of Rationality

1.1 Theories of Rationality and the Descriptive–Normative Divide:
A Historical Approach (Thomas Sturm)
1.2 The Rationality Debate in the Psychology of Reasoning:
An Historical  Review (Jonathan St. B. T. Evans)
1.3 Evolution of Rationality (Gerhard Schurz)
1.4 Rationality and the Brain (Vinod Goel)

Section 2: Key Issues of Rationality

2.1 Reasons and Rationality (John Broome)
2.2 Practical and Theoretical Rationality (Ralph Wedgwood)
2.3 Mental Models (P. N. Johnson-Laird)
2.4 Heuristics and Biases (Klaus Fiedler, Johannes Prager, &
Linda McCaughey)
2.5 Dual-Process Theories of Deductive Reasoning (Karl Christoph Klauer)
2.6 Logico-Computational Aspects of Rationality (Johan van Benthem, Fenrong Liu, & Sonja Smets)


Section 3: Deductive Reasoning

3.1 Propositional and First-Order Logic (Florian Steinberger)
3.2 Natural Logic (David P. O’Brien)
3.3 Psychological Theories of Syllogistic Reasoning (Sangeet Khemlani)

Section 4: Probabilistic Reasoning

4.1 Subjective Probability and Its Dynamics (Alan Hájek & Julia Staffel)
4.2 Bayes Nets and Rationality (Stephan Hartmann)
4.3 Evidential Relevance (Arthur Merin)
4.4 Probability Logic (Niki Pfeifer)
4.5 Bayesian Rationality in the Psychology of Reasoning (Nick Chater &
Mike Oaksford)
4.6 Probabilities and Conditionals (Klaus Oberauer & Danielle Pessach)
4.7 Representing Belief: Beyond Probability and Logic (Didier Dubois & Henri Prade)

Section 5: Belief Revision, Defeasible Reasoning and Argumentation Theory

5.1 Doxastic and Epistemic Logic (Hans van Ditmarsch)
5.2 Belief Revision (Hans Rott)
5.3 Ranking Theory (Gabriele Kern-Isberner, Niels Skovgaard-Olsen, & Wolfgang Spohn)
5.4 Defeasible Reasoning and Belief Revision in Psychology (Lupita Estefania Gazzo Castañeda & Markus Knauff)
5.5 Argumentation Theory (Ulrike Hahn & Peter Collins)
5.6 Reasoning and Argumentation (John Woods)

Section 6: Conditional and Counterfactual Reasoning

6.1 Conditional and Counterfactual Logic (Will Starr)
6.2 The Suppositional Theory of Conditionals and Rationality
(David E. Over & Nicole Cruz)
6.3 Conditional and Counterfactual Reasoning (Ruth M. J. Byrne)
6.4 Utility Conditionals (Jean-François Bonnefon)

Section 7: Causal and Diagnostic Reasoning

7.1 Causal and Counterfactual Inference (Judea Pearl)
7.2 The Rationality of Everyday Causal Cognition (Michael R. Waldmann)
7.3 Diagnostic Causal Reasoning (Björn Meder & Ralf Mayrhofer)


Section 8: Individual Rationality and Decision Making
8.1 Preferences and Utility Functions (Till Grüne-Yanoff)
8.2 Standard Decision Theory (Martin Peterson)
8.3 Prospect Theory (Andreas Glöckner)
8.4 Decision under Uncertainty (Brian Hill)
8.5 Bounded Rationality: A Vision of Rational Choice in the Real World (Ralph Hertwig & Anastasia Kozyreva)
8.6 Reasoning, Rationality, and Metacognition (Valerie A. Thompson, Shira Elqayam, & Rakefet Ackerman)

Section 9: Game Theory

9.1 Classical Game Theory (Max Albert & Hartmut Kliemt)
9.2 Epistemic Game Theory (Andrés Perea)
9.3 Evolutionary Game Theory (Jason M. Alexander)
9.4 Rationality in Economics: Theory and Evidence
(Sanjit Dhami & Ali al-Nowaihi)

Section 10: Aspects of Social Rationality

10.1 Social Epistemology (Franz Dietrich & Kai Spiekermann)
10.2 Collective Rationality (Hans Bernhard Schmid)
10.3 Rationality in Communication (Georg Meggle)
10.4 Rational Choice Theory in the Social Sciences (Werner Raub)
10.5 Structural Rationality (Julian Nida-Rümelin with
Rebecca Gutwald & Niina Zuber)
10.6 Adaptationism: A Meta-Normative Theory of Rationality
(Leda Cosmides & John Tooby)

Section 11: Deontic and Legal Reasoning

11.1 Deontic Logic (John Horty & Olivier Roy)
11.2 Deontic Reasoning in Psychology (Shira Elqayam)
11.3 Legal Logic (Eric Hilgendorf)
11.4 Logical Models of Legal Argumentation (Henry Prakken)

Section 12: Moral Thinking and Rationality

12.1 Rationality and Morality (Christoph Fehige & Ulla Wessels)
12.2 Moral Reasons (Michael Smith)
12.3 The Psychology and Rationality of Moral Judgment
(Alex Wiegmann & Hanno Sauer)


Section 13: Visual and Spatial Reasoning

13.1 Logical Reasoning with Diagrams (Mateja Jamnik)
13.2 Reasoning about Spatial and Temporal Relations (Marco Ragni)
13.3 Visualization and Rationality (Markus Knauff)

Section 14: Scientific Rationality

14.1 Scientific Rationality and Objectivity (Line Edslev Andersen &
Hanne Andersen)
14.2 Rationality and the Value-Freedom of Science (Anke Bueter)
14.3. Rationality and the Public Understanding of Science
(Rainer Bromme & Lukas Gierth)

Section 15: Individual Differences, Learning, and Improvement of Rational Thinking

15.1 The Development of Basic Human Rationality (Henry Markovits)
15.2 Rationality and Intelligence (Keith E. Stanovich, Maggie E. Toplak, & Richard F. West)
15.3 How to Improve Rational Thinking? (Stephanie de Oliveira &
Richard Nisbett)

Name Index

Subject Index